On a clear Tuesday morning, an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the 110-story skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds and trapping hundreds more on higher floors.
As evacuation of the tower and its twin got underway, television cameras broadcasted live images of what initially appeared to be a freak accident. Then, 18 minutes after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767 United Airlines Flight 175 appeared out of the sky, turned sharply toward the World Trade Center and sliced into the south tower near the 60th floor. The collision caused a massive explosion that showered burning debris over surrounding buildings and the streets below.
America was under attack.
PHOTO BY CAROL ORR HARTMAN
Jennifer Abramowitz, left, is a retired New York City Police Detective who recently visited Sanibel Island and shared her eyewitness account of Sept. 11, 2001. She is pictured at Traditions on the Beach celebrating the birthday of her long-time friend and fellow retired New York police officer Joan Gamman, right, along with friend Robin Posniak.
During a recent vacation to Sanibel Island, retired New York City Police Detective Jennifer Abramowitz shared her eyewitness account of that formidable day a decade ago. First thinking it was a misunderstanding, Abramowitz made her way to the water's edge near the Brooklyn Bridge just in time to see the second plane hit.
"It was a sound I had never heard before," she recalled. "Shock waves came across the water and shook the buildings behind me and windows began to buckle. I was stunned for a minute."
As a detective in the Special Victims Unit of the NYPD, Abramowitz had run into gunfire and burning buildings during her 22-year career. But nothing could have prepared her for the horrible events of Sept. 11, 2001. As millions watched the events unfold in New York, American Airlines Flight 77 circled over downtown Washington D.C. and slammed into the west side of the Pentagon military headquarters at 9:45 a.m.
Jet fuel from that Boeing 757 caused a devastating inferno that led to the structural collapse of a portion of the giant concrete building. All told, 125 military personnel and civilians were killed in the Pentagon, along with all 64 people aboard the airliner.
Less than 15 minutes after the terrorists struck the nerve center of the U.S. military, the horror in New York took a catastrophic turn for the worse when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed in a massive cloud of dust and smoke.
"Everyone was gray," Abramowitz said of those coming across the Brooklyn Bridge. "They all had blank faces and were silent, in shock."
The structural steel of the skyscraper, built to withstand winds in excess of 200 miles per hour and a large conventional fire, could not withstand the tremendous heat generated by the burning jet fuel. At 10:30 a.m., the other Trade Center tower collapsed.
Close to 3,000 people died in the World Trade Center and its vicinity, including a staggering 343 firefighters and paramedics, 23 New York City police officers and 37 Port Authority police officers who were struggling to complete an evacuation of the buildings and save the office workers trapped on higher floors. Only six people in the World Trade Center towers at the time of their collapse survived. Almost 10,000 others were treated for injuries, many severe.
"We just felt so helpless," recalled retired New York police officer Joan Gamman, who was visiting Sanibel with Abramowitz.
Meanwhile, a fourth California-bound plane United Flight 93 was hijacked about 40 minutes after leaving Newark International Airport in New Jersey. Because the plane had been delayed in taking off, passengers on board learned of events in New York and Washington via cell phone and Airfone calls to the ground.
Knowing that the aircraft was not returning to an airport as the hijackers claimed, a group of passengers and flight attendants planned an insurrection. One of the passengers, Thomas Burnett Jr., told his wife over the phone, "I know we're all going to die. There's three of us who are going to do something about it. I love you, honey."
Another passenger Todd Beamer was heard saying, "Are you guys ready? Let's roll," over an open line.
Sandy Bradshaw, a flight attendant, called her husband and explained that she had slipped into the galley and was filling pitchers with boiling water. Her last words to him were, "Everyone's running to first class. I've got to go. Bye."
The passengers fought the four hijackers and are suspected to have attacked the cockpit with a fire extinguisher. The plane then flipped over and sped toward the ground at upwards of 500 miles per hour, crashing in a rural field in western Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. All 45 people aboard were killed. Its intended target is not known, but theories include the White House, the U.S. Capitol, the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland or one of several nuclear power plants along the eastern seaboard.
"It has made us appreciate life more," said Gamman. "New York residents were humbled for a quite a while after the attacks."
At 7 p.m. Sept. 11, 2001, President George W. Bush, who had spent the day being shuttled around the country because of security concerns, returned to the White House. At 9 p.m., he delivered a televised address from the Oval Office, declaring, "Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve." In a reference to the eventual U.S. military response he declared, "We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them."
The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations. Reportedly financed Osama bin Laden's al-Queda terrorists organization, they were allegedly acting in retaliation for America's support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War and its continued military presence in the Middle East.
Some of the terrorists had lived in the United States for more than a year and had taken flying lessons at American commercial flight schools. Others had slipped into the country in the months before Sept. 11 and acted as the "muscle" in the operation.
The 19 terrorists easily smuggled box-cutters and knives through security at three East Coast airports and boarded four flights bound for California, chosen because the planes were loaded with fuel for the long transcontinental journey. Soon after takeoff, the terrorists commandeered the four planes and took the controls, transforming ordinary commuter jets into guided missiles.
Operation Enduring Freedom, the American-led international effort to oust the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and destroy bin Laden's terrorist network based there, began on Oct. 7. Within two months, U.S. forces had effectively removed the Taliban from operational power, but the war continued, as U.S. and coalition forces attempted to defeat a Taliban insurgency campaign based in neighboring Pakistan.
Osama bin Laden, the mastermind behind the Sept. 11 attacks, remained at large until May 2, when he was finally tracked down and killed by U.S. forces at a hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan. In June, President Barack Obama announced the beginning of large-scale troop withdrawals from Afghanistan, with a final withdrawal of U.S. forces tentatively scheduled for 2014.
In the 6 months following the 9/11 attacks, Abramowitz and her fellow New York police offers sifted through rubble at the Stanton Island landfill.
"It was horrible," said Abramowitz, who sold her car afterwards because "it smelled like death."
"We found shoes and personal items that looked untouched (by the destruction)," she added.
While the New York City skyline will never be the same, more than 3,000 people were killed during the attacks. It triggered major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism and defined the presidency of George W. Bush.
Abramowitz's story is featured in the book "Women at Ground Zero: Stories of Courage and Compassion" by Susan Hagen and Mary Carouba.